On-line Modelling and Optimising Control

It was identified by operational and process personnel that a newly installed continuous aluminium billet homogenising oven could be improved in terms of its ease of operation and throughput. Initial attempts to arrive at a new operating strategy involved work sessions based on simple models of the process. Due to the interactive nature of the process, these attempts were not successful in formulating a solution. It was therefore decided to build a realistic dynamic simulator of the process for the purposes of improving understanding, and developing a new operating strategy.

Aluminium World
JH Zietsman
2006
© Aluminium World


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Lining to Ilmenite Smelting (PDF)

The UCAR® CHILL-KOTE™ freeze lining concept combines wall cooling with carbon and graphite refractories of higher thermal conductivities to “chill” the refractory lining by transferring heat from the refractory lining. Effective sidewall water cooling, together with the efficiency of the heat dissipating conductive refractories, lowers the temperature of the lining to below that of the molten process materials. This causes a layer of slag and process metal to solidify or “freeze” and form a protective “skull” which completely coats the refractory hot face. Once formed, the slag skull insulates the refractories, reducing heat loss and protect the lining from erosion, chemical attack, thermal shock, and other stresses. The result: extended life and greatly improved refractory performance.

Presented at INFACON 7
C Coetzee; PH Lamont; D Bessinger; J Rabe; JH Zietsman; J Muller
2006

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Process mechanisms in ilmenite smelting

It has previously been observed that industrial high-titania slags display a compositional invariance, remaining close to stoichiometric M3O5. The present study focuses on this invariance and the phenomena which may cause it. The invariance was studied using thermochemical calculations and a mechanism is proposed for the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that a combination of thermochemical equilibrium and transient slag solidification and melting results in the observed compositional invariance. The proposed mechanism provides new insights and prompts questions about other mechanisms in the smelting process.

Journal of the SAIMM
J.H. Zietsman and P.C. Pistorius
April 2005, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 229
© SAIMM Journal

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Ex Mente partners with Bateman Minerals on Chinese Project

BATEMAN Minerals and Metals has recently been awarded a contract for the supply of an Ex Mente Process Level Information System (EMPLIS™). Ex Mente is a South African-based company that has been sub-contracted by Bateman for the supply of their EMPLIS™ technology. Ex Mente has developed this information system technology and other value-adding process solution technologies in the past seven years and has vast experience in the TiO2 slag industry.The purpose of EMPLIS™ is to capture and store discrete-activity data related to the TiO2 slag furnace, such as slag taps, metal taps, manual measurements and chemical analysis. The system provides operational personnel with easy access to the captured data and to extensive process reports based on the data. EMPLIS™ allows for process-critical decisions to be made in a shorter time and data can be easily provided to other process-related systems and to higher-level operations management and business systems. (Asia Miner; 3rd Quarter July 2008, p76).

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Computational Thermo Chemistry

Ex Mente and GTT Technologies recently held a Workshop on Computational Thermo chemistry in Centurion, South Africa. The workshop was presented by Dr Klaus Hack and case studies were presented by Ex Mente and Chambishi Metals plc. The workshop attendees represented a broad spectrum of the South African Mining and Metallurgy industry and was a resounding success.

Ex Mente Information

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SGTE Casebook

The SGTE casebook is a valuable reference for those manufacturing steels and other materials, those using materials in high-temperature applications such as the power industry and in other areas such as microelectronics and lighting. This substantially revised new edition explores both the theoretical background to thermodynamic modelling and its wide range of practical applications. These applications include the analysis of hot salt and other types of high-temperature corrosion, understanding the loss of corrosion resistance in stainless and other types of steel, the processing of steels, as well as the use of thermodynamics to improve the functionality of materials for microelectronics and lighting applications, and in the analysis of nuclear safety issues. New case studies also illustrate applications to kinetically-controlled processes such as the solidification and heat treatment of alloys as well as the production of silicon and titanium oxide pigment. SGTE Casebook Brochure, or for more information, contact us.

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