The UCAR® CHILL-KOTE™ freeze lining concept combines wall cooling with carbon and graphite refractories of higher thermal conductivities to “chill” the refractory lining by transferring heat from the refractory lining. Effective sidewall water cooling, together with the efficiency of the heat dissipating conductive refractories, lowers the temperature of the lining to below that of the molten process materials. This causes a layer of slag and process metal to solidify or “freeze” and form a protective “skull” which completely coats the refractory hot face. Once formed, the slag skull insulates the refractories, reducing heat loss and protect the lining from erosion, chemical attack, thermal shock, and other stresses. The result: extended life and greatly improved refractory performance.

Presented at INFACON 7
C Coetzee; PH Lamont; D Bessinger; J Rabe; JH Zietsman; J Muller
2006

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Lining to Ilmenite Smelting (PDF)

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